• Nadela Nadela Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Unika Atma Jaya
  • Denio Adrianus Ridjab Medical Education Unit, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Unika Atma Jaya
  • Dwi Jani Juliawati Medical Education Unit, Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Unika Atma Jaya
Keywords: Kata Kunci: kualitas tidur, kuantitas tidur, six-minute walk test, Jakarta.


Introduction: The general population often experiences lack of sleep and has poor sleep quality. Both can affect many things to the body, one is physical functional capacity. Physical functional capacity can be measured using a six-minute walk test (6MWT). Many studies have discussed about 6MW, however, none of the studies have specifically found its association with quality and quantity of sleep in young and older adults in Jakarta.
Methods: This research is a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study conducted on two groups, young and older adults. Data were collected from demographic questionnaires, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and a six-minute walk test, which was directly measured. Bivariate analysis was conducted using Chi-square and independent T-test.
Results: 62,5% of 40 young adults have poor sleep quality, while for older adults, only 26,7%. There are 67,5% of young adults that have inadequate sleep while for older adults, only 48,9%. Based on observation in 39 older adults, 57,9% walking distance of male older adults and 65% walking distance of female older adults were normal. In young male and female adults, normal walking distance was found in 50% and 44,4%, respectively. The bivariate analysis results showed a significant positive association between quality of sleep and 6MWT (p=0,03). There is no significant association between the quantity of sleep and 6MWT (p=0,797).
Conclusion: Older adults have a higher number of good sleep quality and adequate sleep, a normal range of distance walked, and a farther mean distance walked than the young adults. There is a positive association between sleep quality and the 6MWT in both groups. A six-minute walk test needs to be considered more often as a measurement tool in evaluating sleep quality and quantity and its effect on physical function.


Download data is not yet available.


Adimi Naghan P, Aloosh O, Torang HA, Malekmohammad M. Can 6-minute walk test predict severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome? Sleep Science and Practice. 2017 Sep 5;1(1):17.

Franklin KA, Lindberg E. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder in the population—a review on the epidemiology of sleep apnea. J Thorac Dis. 2015 Aug;7(8):1311–22.

Gellis LA, Park A, Stotsky MT, Taylor DJ. Associations between sleep hygiene and insomnia severity in college students: Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Behavior Therapy. 2014 Nov;45(6):806–16.

Azad MC, Fraser K, Rumana N, Abdullah AF, Shahana N, Hanly PJ, et al. Sleep disturbances among medical students: A global perspective. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2015 Jan 15;

Peltzer K, Pengpid S. Prevalence, social and health correlates of insomnia among persons 15 years and older in Indonesia. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2019 Jul 3;24(6):757–68.

Watson NF, Belenky G, Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, Dinges DF, et al. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. Sleep. 2015 Aug 1;38(8):1161–83.

ATS Statement: Guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jul 1;166(1):111–7.

Rao N, Irfan M, Haque A, Zubairi A, Awan S. Six-minute walk test performance in healthy adult Pakistani volunteers. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2013 Oct 1;720–5.

Du H, Wonggom P, Tongpeth J, Clark RA. Six-minute walk test for assessing physical functional capacity in chronic heart failure. Current Heart Failure Reports. 2017 Jun;14(3):158–66.

Zou H, Zhu X, Zhang J, Wang Y, Wu X, Liu F, et al. Reference equations for the six-minute walk distance in the healthy Chinese population aged 18–59 years. Fehrenbach H, editor. PLOS ONE. 2017 Sep 14;12(9):e0184669.

Soares MR, Pereira CA de C. Teste de caminhada de seis minutos: valores de referência para adultos saudáveis no Brasil. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia. 2011 Oct;37(5):576–83.

Nusdwinuringtyas N. Six minute walking distance cut-off point in Indonesian (Mongoloid) population. J Indon Med Assoc,. 2018 Aug 8;68(8):6.

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A
new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research. 1989 May;28(2):193–213.

Li L, Wang Y-Y, Wang S-B, Li L, Lu L, Ng CH, et al. Sleep duration and sleep patterns in chinese university students: A comprehensive meta-analysis. JCSM. 2017 Oct 15;13(10):1153–62.

Mokarrar MH, Afsharmanesh A, Afshari M, Mohammadi F. Prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students in an eastern university in Iran. Iranian Journal of Health Sciences. 2017 Mar 10;5(1):49–54.

Verwimp J, Ameye L, Bruyneel M. Correlation between sleep parameters, physical activity and quality of life in somnolent moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea adult patients. Sleep and Breathing. 2013 Sep;17(3):1039–46.

Ben Saad H, Ben Hassen I, Ghannouchi I, Latiri I, Rouatbi S, Escourrou P, et al. 6-Min walk-test data in severe obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome (OSAHS) under continuous-positive-airway-pressure (CPAP) treatment. Respiratory Medicine. 2015 May;109(5):642–55.

Mendelson M, Bailly S, Marillier M, Flore P, Borel JC, Vivodtzev I, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, objectively measured physical activity and exercise training interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Neurol. 2018 Feb 22;9.

Poh H, Eastwood PR, Cecins NM, Ho KT, Jenkins SC. Six-minute walk distance in healthy Singaporean adults cannot be predicted using reference equations derived from Caucasian populations. Respirology. 2006 Mar;11(2):211–6.

Fernandes L. Reference equation for six minute walk test in healthy western India population. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2016;

Camarri B, Eastwood PR, Cecins NM, Thompson PJ, Jenkins S. Six minute walk distance in healthy subjects aged 55-75 years. Respir Med. 2006 Apr;100(4):658–65.

Lusic Kalcina L, Valic M, Pecotic R, Pavlinac Dodig I, Dogas Z. Good and poor sleepers among OSA patients: sleep quality and overnight polysomnography findings. Neurol Sci. 2017 Jul;38(7):1299–306.
How to Cite
Nadela N, Ridjab D, Juliawati D. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF SLEEP WITH SIX-MINUTE WALK TEST IN YOUNG AND OLDER ADULTS IN JAKARTA [Internet]. Damianus Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 27Nov.2020 [cited 25Feb.2021];19(2):141 -150. Available from:
Abstract viewed = 0 times
PDF (Bahasa Indonesia) downloaded = 0 times