Learning strategies and implications for second language teaching

Authors

  • Wang Dakun

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25170/ijelt.v2i1.1610

Keywords:

learning strategies, second language teaching, strategy instruction

Abstract

This article reviews the relevant literature of language learning strategies by examining the background, the issues along with the definition, the characteristics, the categories and the functional framework. The intertwined relationships among person, task, context and strategies are illustrated with the tetrahedral model proposed by Gu (2003). The article also discusses the significance of language learning strategies for second language learning and the effectiveness of strategy instruction before presenting the pedagogical implications for second language teachers. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of language learning strategy studies by summarizing the important aspects and to highlight the implications for integrating language learning strategy instruction into ESL classrooms so that the teachers can have a meaningful way to focus on their teaching efforts and the learners can become more efficient in their efforts to learn a second language as well.

References

Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., & Campione, J. C. 1983. Learning, remembering, and understanding. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol 3. Cognitive Development (pp. 77-166). New York: Wiley.
Chamot, A. U. & Kupper, L. 1989. Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign language annals, 22/1, 13-24.
Clement, R. & Gardner, R. 2001. Second language mastery. In P. Robinson & H. Giles (Eds.), The new handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 489-504). New York: Wiley.
Cohen, A. D. 1998. Strategies in learning and using language. Longman.
Cohen, A. D., & Aphek, E. 1980. Retention of second-language vocabulary over time: Investigating the role of mnemonic associations. System, 8, 221-235.
Derry, S. J., & Murphy, D. A. 1986. Designing systems that train learning ability: From theory to practice. Review of educational research, 56, 1-39.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Flavell, J. H. 1979. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American psychologist, 34, 906-911.
Graham, S. 1997. Effective language learning: Positive strategies for advanced level language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Gu, P. 2003. Learning strategies: Prototypical core and dimensions of variation, Unpublished manuscript, Victoria University of Wellington
Lessard-Clouston, M.1997. Language learning strategies: An overview for L2 teachers. The Internet TESL Journal. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lessard-Clouston-Strategy.html (2005, October 8).
Nation, P. 2001. Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge University Press.
O’Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A. 1990. Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kupper, L. & Russo, R. P. 1985. Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35, 21-46
Oxford, R. 1990. Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House.
Oxford, R. 1993. Language learning strategies in a nutshell: Update and ESL suggestions. TESOL Journal, 2/2, 18-22.
Rubin, J. 1975. What the "good language learner" can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9/1, 41-51.
Rubin, J.(1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 2, 117-131.
Rubin, J. 1987. Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies and language learning (pp. 15-29). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Salvisberg, J. 2005. Cognitive style and learning strategies. IATEFL Issues, February - March. 2-3.
Stern, H.H. 1975. What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian modern language review, 31, 304-318.
Weinstein, C. E. 1978. ‘Elaboration skills as a learning strategy’. In H.F. O’Neill, Jr. (Ed.) Learning strategies. NY: Academic Press.
Wenden, A. L. 1987. Incorporating learner training in the classroom. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 159-168). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall.
Wenden, A., & Rubin, J. 1987. Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Williams, M. & Burden, R. L. 1997. Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge University Press.

Downloads

Published

2006-05-31
Abstract views: 28 | PDF downloads: 23